Indexes and Bibliographic Notes

From Woman Lawyer: The Trials of Clara Foltz -- Online Notes For The Book

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Indexes and Bibliographic Notes

There are two indexes here: the first is to subjects and page numbers in Woman Lawyer: The Trials of Clara Foltz (the book index). This index also appears on the website of the Stanford University Press. The second index provides access to the extensive Bibliographic Notes with links to the relevant notes.

The Bibliographical Notes are arranged in the order of the book chapters and provide additional source material for the facts and interpretations in the text and endnotes. A list of the notes, with links, appears below. Some of these are traditional bibliographic notes listing essential references with a few words of critical explanation. Also included are first person essays and descriptions of people and events that influenced Clara Foltz, but whose stories would extend the book unduly.

A biography written over many years has more sources than can be cited even in this format – especially in a burgeoning new field like women’s legal history. I have tried to cite the main works that influenced my thinking, which may not be exactly the same as all the main works. In a larger sense, virtually everything I have read concerning women’s rights and nineteenth century history is in here somewhere even though not mentioned explicitly. To those whose work deserves more recognition than I have given it here, my sincerest apologies.

List of Bibliographic Notes


  1. About and By Clara Foltz: Biographical Material and Her Writings
    1. Babcock's Work
      1. Babcock Encyclopedia Entries
      2. Website
      3. Book Chapters and Other Writings
    2. Other articles on Clara Shortridge Foltz
    3. Clara Foltz’s Publications
  2. Archival and Investigative Materials
    1. Libraries
      1. Bancroft Library of the University of California, Berkeley
      2. Special Collections, Stanford University, Stanford, California
      3. Huntington Library, San Merino, Califonria
      4. UCLA Special Collections
      5. California State Library
    2. Court records
    3. Interviews
  3. Timelines
    1. Life Events
    2. Passage of Constitutional Clauses
    3. Public Defender Campaign
  4. Women’s History
    1. Legal Status of Women in the Nineteenth Century
    2. "Feminism" and Women’s Rights: Nomenclature
    3. Women’s Biographies
      1. National Suffrage Movement Biographies
  5. Women Lawyers History and Individual Biographies
    1. Women Lawyers History
      1. General Works
      2. Comparison of Women Lawyers in Europe and the United States
      3. Women Criminal Defense Lawyers
      4. The 1920s and 1930s in Boston, D.C., and Chicago
      5. Women and the Bar
    2. Women Lawyers and the Women's Rights Movement
      1. Excerpt from Feminist Lawyers
    3. Individual Women's Biographies
      1. Myra Bradwell
      2. Lavinia Goodell
      3. Mary Greene
      4. Belva Lockwood
      5. Arabella (Belle) Mansfield
      6. Marilla Ricker
      7. Lelia Robinson

Chapter One

  1. Family and Mt. Pleasant, Iowa
    1. Parents
      1. Quotes from Funeral of Elias W. Shortridge
    2. Siblings
    3. Charles Morris Shortridge
      1. General
      2. Early Life and Career
      3. The San Francisco Call
      4. Marriages
      5. Timeline of Charles's Life
      6. Ambrose Bierce's BLACK BEETLES IN AMBER
    4. Senator Samuel Morgan Shortridge (brother)
      1. General
      2. Summary of Career
    5. Foltz’s Children
      1. Trella Evelyn Foltz
      2. Samuel Courtland Foltz
      3. David Milton Foltz
      4. Bertha May Foltz Newman
      5. Virginia Foltz Catron
        1. Investigative Material
        2. Newspaper Interviews of Virgina
    6. Mt. Pleasant and Howe’s Academy
  2. Foltz’s Friends and Allies
    1. Lillie Devereux Blake
      1. Early Life and W.L.H. Barnes
      2. Marriages and Early Writings
      3. Contributions to the Women's Movement
    2. Clara Colby
      1. Correspondence Between Colby and Foltz
      2. Colby and Laura Gordon
    3. Abigail Duniway
    4. Sarah Knox Goodrich
    5. Laura Gordon
      1. Early Life and Work With Foltz
      2. Gordon's 'Greatest Case'
    6. Grove L. Johnson
      1. Rivalry With Hiram Johnson
  3. The Workingmen’s Party of California (WPC)
    1. Rise and Composition of the WPC
    2. WPC and the Anti-Chinese Movement
    3. Relation with the Workingmen’s Party of the United States (WPUS)
  4. California Constitutional History
    1. Convention of 1879
    2. Passage of the Anti-Discrimination Clauses
    3. Prominent Pro-Woman Delegates at the 1879 Convention
      1. James J. Ayers
      2. Eli T. Blackmer
      3. Charles Ringgold
      4. David Terry
      5. Alphonse Vacquerel
    4. Prominent Opponents
      1. Joseph Hoge
      2. Samuel Wilson
      3. Thomas Bishop
      4. Delos Lake
  5. The Women's Movement, Free Love and Spiritualism
    1. Spiritualism and Suffragists Generally
    2. Foltz and Spiritualism
    3. Addie Ballou
    4. Victoria Woodhull
      1. The Beecher-Tilton Scandal
  6. Women and Divorce
    1. General
    2. Marriage and Divorce in the West
    3. National Studies
    4. End of the Century

Chapter Two

  1. Women as Public Lecturers
    1. Lecturing and Lyceums Generally
      1. Robert Ingersoll
    2. Women Lecturers
      1. Foltz's First Lecturing Tour
      2. Anna Dickinson
      3. Kate Field
  2. Women and Jury Service
    1. General Sources
    2. The Connection Between Women Defense Lawyers and Women Jurors
      1. Women Defenders and Women Jurors
    3. The Washington Territory Experience
      1. Rosencrantz v. Territory
      2. Harland v. Territory
      3. Bloomer v. Todd
  3. San Francisco Social Life and Clara Foltz's Circle
    1. General Sources
      1. The Montgomery Block
    2. Frona Wait, Madge Morris, Ella Cummins
      1. Excerpt From Frona Wait's Notes
      2. Morris's "Ode to Clara Foltz"
      3. Rocking the Baby
      4. Cummins' Exhibit
  4. San Diego in the Real Estate Boom
    1. General Works
    2. The Rail War
    3. The Ensenada
  5. Nineteenth Century Newspaper Publishing
    1. General Works
    2. Biographies and Autobiographies
      1. Women and Western Journalism
      2. Lawyers and Publishing
    3. A Bee Sampler
      1. The Boom
      2. Outside News
      3. Local Excitement
      4. Regular Items
      5. Civic Events
      6. Society and Fashion
      7. Last Days at the Bee
  6. Bellamy Nationalism
    1. General Sources
    2. Women and Bellamy Nationalism
      1. Clara's Activism
    3. Charlotte Perkins Gilman

Chapter Three

  1. Law Practice in the West
    1. General works
    2. Biographical works
      1. Oscar Shuck's Work
    3. Clara Foltz’s Practice
    4. Women and Criminal Law Practice
      1. Lelia Robinson
      2. Women Defenders: The Negative Image
      3. Women Defenders and Women Jurors
      4. Laura Gordon and the Sproule Case
      5. Why Women Became Defenders
      6. The Contributions of Women to Criminal Defense
  2. Late Nineteenth Century Politics
    1. General Sources
      1. Coxey's Army, The Pullman Strike, and the Haymarket Tragedy
      2. Bellamy Nationalism and Populism
      3. Women's Pre-Suffrage Participation in Politics
      4. 1894 Election in California
    2. Mary Elizabeth Lease
    3. Stephen White
    4. Anna Ferry Smith
  3. Foltz as Reform Lobbyist in the 1890s
    1. Parole Legislation
    2. Women's Rights Measures

Chapter Four

  1. The New Woman
  2. Trella Toland and Her Autograph Book
    1. Writers and Journalists
    2. Actors
    3. Theater People
    4. Trella's Family: William Toland, Sam Shortridge, and Virginia Toland
    5. Isaac Trumbo
  3. The New York Legal Scene
    1. Women’s Legal Education Society (WLES) and Law Class
    2. The New Corporate Practice
    3. Criminal practice
  4. The Oil Boom and Foltz’s Companies

Chapter Five

  1. Murder Defendants and Equal Justice
    1. Women as Criminal Defendants
      1. The Death Penalty
      2. Maria Barbella
      3. Laura Fair
      4. Florence Maybrick

Chapter Six

  1. Women's Rights Movement History
    1. Legal Status of Women in Nineteenth Century
    2. Seneca Falls
    3. Historiography
    4. Relationship to Other Movements and Causes
      1. Suffrage and Other Women's Rights
      2. Suffrage and Black Civil Rights Movement
      3. Suffrage and Temperance and Prohibition
  2. The Woman's National Liberal Union Convention
    1. General Sources
    2. Matilda Gage, President
    3. Reaction to Foltz’s Remarks
    4. Other Notable Attendants
      1. Theosophy and Madame Blavatsky
      2. William Aldrich and Josephine Cables
      3. Elliott and Emily Coues
      4. Charlotte Smith
  3. The World's Fair
    1. General Works
    2. African Americans at the Fair
  4. Women at the World's Fair
    1. General Works
    2. Bertha Palmer and the Isabella Club
    3. Clara Foltz, Laura Gordon, and Clara Colby
    4. The Women's Congresses
    5. Participation in the Other Auxiliary Congresses
  5. Post-Fair Suffrage Campaigns
    1. New York
      1. General Description
      2. New York Constitutional Convention
        1. Explaining Choate's Change in Position
        2. Interview with Stanleyetta Titus on Winning the Vote at the Convention
    2. California
      1. General Description
      2. Foltz and Other Women Suffragists
  6. Victory in California -- 1911
    1. The California Suffrage Campaign Generally
    2. The 1911 Campaign
    3. Coffin and Edson

Chapter Seven

  1. Progressivism, Suffrage, and Public Defense
    1. General Works on Progressivism
    2. California Progressives
    3. Progressivism and Suffrage
      1. Suffrage and Public Defense
  2. The Early History of Public Defense
    1. General Works on Public Defense
    2. Relation of Legal Societies to Public Defense
  3. Foltz the Founder of Public Defense
  4. Foltz's Arguments for Public Defense
    1. Prosecutorial Misconduct
      1. People v. Wells
    2. The Presumption of Innocence
    3. Burdening the Right
      1. Aaron Burr. Greene v. Briggs
      2. United States v. Burr
      3. Carpenter v. County of Dane
    4. Woman Suffrage and Public Defense
  5. The Right to Counsel and the Appointed Counsel System
  6. New York Politics and Foltz’s Public Defender Bill
    1. Tammany Hall
    2. Thomas Grady
    3. Late Nineteenth Century New York Politics
    4. Thomas C. Platt and the 1897 Mayoral Election
    5. Women in the Anti-Tammany Efforts
    6. Biographical Works
  7. Comparison of Public Defender Statutes
    1. 1885 Statute
    2. 1897 Statute
      1. Text of the 1897 Statute
      2. Comparison to Public Defender Statutes Actually Enacted
      3. Foltz's Bill Introduced in Multiple States
    3. The 1912 Los Angeles Charter Provision and the 1921 Statute
      1. Wisconsin Statute Tracks the California Statute
  8. Comparison of Progressive Defender with Foltzian Model
    1. Progressivism and Public Defense
    2. The Progressive and the Foltzian Defenders
      1. Example of Progressive-Type Representation
      2. The Foltzian Model
    3. Cost of the Public Defender
    4. Competing Visions in New York: Mayer Goldman’s Public Defender and the Legal Aid Societies
    5. History of the Legal Aid Society
      1. The Voluntary Defenders

Index to Woman Lawyer: The Trials of Clara Foltz

Bibliographic Notes and Supplementary Text

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